What are the political problems in Somalia?
What are the causes of the political problems in Somalia?
Who makes the political problems in Somalia?
How to get Somalia out of the political problems?
Well, this page answers the questions above. So, read it thoroughly and read the linked Somali pages to know more about the Somali political problems, or interact to correct any wrong information and write about the political problems in Somalia.
Following the news and the political changes and spelling out the causes, will bring Somalia’s political problems into the light with more concrete information, so you could understand everything in the Somali political scene correct.
The political problems in Somali are all composed of a matter of the insanity sometimes. They grew deeply from within through the previous military dictatorship of Mohammed Seyad Berry in 1969-1991, based on the tribal and religion notions Somalia has in its inheritance, as a clan based country with a specific religious orientation.
But, the clans and the religion should not be serious matters to affect the state of Somalia negatively and cause, or contribute to the political crises in the state. They should work together to maintain the unity of the Somalis and the dignity of Somalia, as a modern, secular state.
That means the Somali composition of clans and religion should be used to the benefit of the state, instead of using this combination to destroy the unity of the country and the weak clans, all together.
De facto events exposed historically from the independence of Somalia until recently prove that the given composition worked very bad to produce political systems that have never been effective and functioning well to improve the political situations in Somalia.
For example, the assassination of Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke in 1969 was an attempt to demonstrate and carry the tribal composition to develop faster than expected and contribute to the continued political disasters in Somalia.
Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was from the Majeerteen clan, which is a subdivision of the Harti confederation of Darod clans. He became a president form 10 June 1967 to 15 October 1969, precede by the first Somali president, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar who had been in office from 1 July 1960 to 10 June 1967.
He was married to Ruqia Dahir Ali Boss, the daughter of a well known Somali Islamic scholar from the Mehri clan, which is said to be a division from Bani Namar sub-clan. (If you knew more about this, please write it in the form below.)
So, the first assassination of a president in Somalia as an independent Somali Republic was apparently caused because of the tribal competition in Somalia.
After 40 years of the assassination of Shermarke, the president of Somalia, Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed nominated his son, Omer Sharmarke to become the prime minister.
But, when Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke realized that and knew he could not solve the clans and religious problems of Somalia, he resigned sooner and escaped contributing to the Somali disaster.
There are some points here to understand the nature of the political problems in Somalia, starting form the first day Somalia became independent country.
The first is that, the country has been divided from the start under the control of three competing colonial powers, when they sought and established treaties with the clans to protect them.
This could explain the political problems in Somalia nowadays, as each part of the country has been created according to the tribal division, while the forth part of Somalia has been given to the Ethiopian Emperor to stretch Ethiopia to the northeast.
The process was also an attempt to give him also the fifth part of Somalia, which was at that decisive period of colonialism considered as a French property, at the time France served the Ethiopian Emperor and got even to his bedroom to decorate it for his wife.
But, France hesitated and preferred to create it as Djibouti, to remain under the French influence forever. This is why I am stressing on history to understand the recent political problems in Somalia and elsewhere in the Horn of Africa. Read my book, “The Political Tragedy of the Horn of Africa” at the right column.
There are also some notices here. The presidents of Somalia since the independence have all together sought the support of their tribes and worked hard to compose the administrative system by tribal elements belonging to the same tribes of the presidents.
Mohammed Siad Barre started this and enabled his clan, the Marehan clan, one of the Daroud sub-clans to control other clans during his reign, although he led his military coup under the Supreme Revolutionary Council.
The Supreme Revolutionary Council appeared as the first political party to be socialist and Barre assumed that he was inspired by the Marxists in the Soviet Union and China, just as Jafar al-Numeri in Sudan and banned all parties and started a form of of scientific socialism in Somalia. (Thecoups of Numeri and Barre were both in 1969).
But, his party was such a Merhan party, so it was sooner shifted to start and support the tribal system in the country and thus created the political problems in Somalia.
The Somali president before him, Sheikh Mukhtar Mohamed Hussein, who took the presidency after the assassination of Shermarke in a brief period from 15 October 1969 to 21 October 1969 was born in a Hadame family, which is one of the families of the Rahanweyn clan.
Ali Mahdi Muhammad became president when his party, the United Somali Congress (USC) selected him to take the office from 29 January 1991 to Novemebr 1991. He was a member of the Abgaal clan, which is part of the Hawiye clan.
Mohammed Farah Aidid, the chairman of the United Somali Congress (USC) and the later leader of the Somali National Alliance (SNA) declared himself president of Somalia in 1995 when he forced the UN forced out of the country. The UN and the US sent their troops in 1992 to Somalia. He was from Habar Gidir Hawiye clan.
The political problems in Somalia escalated and Somalia lived unbearable pain during the hard anarchy period led by the warlords and the separatist groups from 1991 to 2004.
Sheikh Mukhtar Mohamed Hussein, the speaker of the Somali Parliament and the interim president during the period from 15 October 1969 to 21 October 1969 was from a Hadame family, which is part of the Rahanweyn clan. He was also member of the Somali Youth Club.
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, the first president in the Transitional Federal Government from 14 October 2004 to 29 December 2008 has founded with other Somalis the Somali Salvation Democratic Front and the Puntland State of Somalia.
He is from the Majeerteen Harti Darod clan. He joined the army in the 1950s and fought in the Somali-Ethiopian war in the Ogaden in 1964.
Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe, the interim prudent from 29 December 2008 to 31 January 2009, was the speaker of the interim parliament during the Transitional Federal Government (TFG).
He became interim president following the resignation of president Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed. As other Somali presidents, he considered also a warlord with religious orientation. He is from the Rahanweyn clan (Raxanweyn), which consists of Digii and Mirifle sub-clans. He is also from the Hadame sub clan.
Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed the 7th President of Somalia is from the Abgaal, branch of the Mudulood branch of the Hawiye clan. In addition, he was the former Commander in Chief of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU).
So, the composition of clans and religion is stronger than we could imagine to prove that it has bad effects on the Somali society. Moreover, by appointing the son of the second Somali president as a prime minister we could read the facts as the following:
- Sheikh Sharif wanted to gain the support of the Shermarkey’s clan to remain in power and carry his Islamic fundamental programs, working with the military religious regime in Sudan to extend the network of the terrorists in the Horn of Africa.
- If you re-read the composition of the tribal branches of Sheikh Sharif, you could understand how the tribal system work and how it is composed from small units that start from the small family up to the clan level.
- If well-done, then the extended fundamentalists’ network could topple other governments in the Horn of Africa from within, build strong alliance and control the Red Sea and the national treasury of those lands, assisted by similar extremists at the east of theHorn of Africa.
Add to this the religious orientation of the leaders of different presidential periods in Somalia. There is not any intersection between the religion and the clan. The combination of the two ingredients in the Somali society is obvious.
But, surprisingly the religious orientation fails when it comes to social standard of the clan, whereas we find a kind of discrimination according to the standard of this clan and that one in the society. The social justice fails too.
All of this is the result of the political literacy. All of the colonized powers and the national governments have not maintained the country by good civil education, even before religious education to help the country produce sophisticated and modern educated people to avoid any complications and many political problems.
Such education could help the Somalis consider themselves as Somalis before considering themselves as Darod, Rahanweyn, or any other clan. It helps them understand that the state (any state in the world) is a secular concept. Therefore, there is no way for the clan, or the religion to control it.
There is no way even when all the people believe in one religion. That is because every religion has many sects. The differences between these sects could destroy the state, as we see in some other lands.
It is for this reason, the only way to avoid dangerous political problems in Somalia, is to build a secular state using the ingredients of the modern construction of the state and then adding the general ethical values of the religion and the positive cultural ingredients of the clans to form the ethics of the state.
Qormadaan waxaa lagu qoray website ka faaloodooda arrimaha siyaasadaha. faahfaahinta websiteka waxaad ka heli kartaa: http://www.hoa-politicalscene.com/somalia-political-problems.html
This writing is referenced from: http://www.hoa-politicalscene.com/somalia-political-problems.html
Continue at the Somali Political Parties and when you finish reading it, see the following resources:
The Somali Site Maps:
Somali Arabic Comments – Primary Site Map 6 B.
Somali Political Articles – Primary Site Map 6 C.
Somali Political Forums – Primary Site Map 6 D.
Somali Political Comments – Primary Site Map 6 E.
Write about Somalia – Secondary Site Map 20.